LONDON Rickard Rakell Ducks Jersey , June 28 (Xinhua) -- A study by a team researchers from British universities revealed Wednesday the levels of bad behaviours in the kitchens of British restaurants which increase the risk of customers suffering food poisoning.

A survey of over 200 chefs has revealed that a third of them had worked in kitchens which served meat "on the turn", while over 30 percent had worked in a kitchen within 48 hours of suffering from diarrhoea andor vomiting.

Around 16 percent had served barbeque chicken when not sure it was fully cooked, and seven percent did not always wash their hands immediately after handling raw meat or fish.

The searchers from the universities of Manchester, Liverpool and Bangor carried out the study as part of the Enigma project Antoine Vermette Ducks Jersey , a large collaborative program of research into the most common bacterial cause of diarrhoeal disease in the developed world, Campylobacter.

Undercooked barbeque chicken is associated with Campylobacter, and in addition, chefs returning to work too soon after suffering from diarrhoea andor vomiting have been implicated in high-profile food poisoning outbreaks Josh Manson Ducks Jersey , said a spokesman at the University of Manchester.

The research, published in journal PLOS ONE, found that avoiding eating where such behaviours take place is not easy for the public. This was because chefs working in award-winning kitchens were more likely to have returned to work within 48 hours of suffering from diarrhoea and vomiting, and not washing hands was more likely in upmarket establishments - despite over a third of the public agreeing that the more expensive a meal was Derek Grant Ducks Jersey , the safer they would expect it to be.

"Chefs working in restaurants with a good Food Hygiene Rating Scheme score were just as likely to have committed the risky behaviours at some time in their career, or to have worked with others who had," said the spokesman in Manchester.

As the behaviours involved were embarrassing or potentially incriminating to reveal, the researchers used something called the Randomised Response Technique (RRT) to cope with the fact that people might not want to reveal the truth about their dark kitchen secrets.

"This involved those surveyed rolling two dice in secret John Gibson Ducks Jersey , and switching their answers (Yes to No; No to Yes) according to the values they rolled," said the spokesman.

"The technique makes people more prepared to reveal the truth than just asking them directly, and the researchers were able to recover the true rates of the bad behaviours from the data," the spokesman added.

Professor Dan Rigby from the University of Manchester said: "Foodborne illnesses impose a huge burden to the UK population Jakob Silfverberg Ducks Jersey , and these results indicate a high prevalence of behaviours which can give people food poisoning."

Rigby, who is one of the lead authors of the study, added:"It is notable that chefs in fine dining establishments were more likely to have returned to work too soon after suffering diarrhoea andor vomiting, contravening UK regulations - this may be that fear of losing a prestigious job Ryan Miller Ducks Jersey , or a desire not to let the team down, is causing people to not to stay away for long enough, putting the public at risk."

Rigby added: "Staff currently working in kitchens with higher prices, more awards or a good Food Hygiene Rating Scheme were no less likely to have committed the bad behaviours  Brandon Montour Ducks Jersey , or have worked with colleagues who had in the past - meaning that the public face a difficult challenge to protect themselves from these bad kitchen behaviours."

The University of Liverpool's Professor Sarah O'Brien, said: "We know that food handling behaviours can create or worsen food safety hazards. By bringing together researchers from different scientific disciplines in the ENIGMA project, we now have a much better idea of what really goes on."

There are an estimated 500,000 cases of foodborne disease linked to known pathogens in Britain annually Ondrej Kase Ducks Jersey , associated with medical, financial and welfare costs estimated to be more than 2.3 billion U.S. dollars. About 60 percent of foodborne disease outbreaks in Britain are linked to eating establishments and commercial caterers.

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TEHRAN, Oct. 8 (Xinhua) -- National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) and the Russian Tatneft signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) here on Saturday for feasibility studies on development of Iran's Deholoran oil field, Iran's Petro-Energy Information Network (SHANA) reported.

Addressing the signing ceremony, Director General of Tatneft Nail Ulfatovich Maganov introduced the capabilities of his company for doing the project and said that his company is active in various oil industry subsidiaries, including the upstream and downstream activities.

Oil extraction, enhanced oil recovery, oil refining, manufacturing of machinery and equipment are among the expertise of Tatneft, Maganov was quoted as saying.

Tatneft uses specialized forces and takes advantage of the latest technologies in oil industry, Maganov said.

He voiced satisfaction for cooperating with the NIOC, expressing hope that the agreement will prepare the ground for future cooperation.

Dehloran oil field is 22 km to the southwest of Dehloran city in Iran's Ilam province and contains about five billion barrels of oil reserves.

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